Restoration and Repair Terms


The replacement of loose, weathered or missing mortar between units of masonry.

Masonry Repair

The dismantling and reconstruction of defective areas of masonry, including possible replacement of deteriorated supporting steel.

Concrete Restoration

The restoration of cracked, spalled (delaminated) surfaces of exposed structural concrete; and of the underlying and rusted steel reinforcing.

Caulking and Sealant Applications

The application of weatherproof elastomer bridging between hard-surfaced construction materials.


The application to masonry or concrete of (usually clear) water repellents or penetrating moisture barrier materials.

Building Cleaning

Various processes that clean and renew masonry or metal surfaces, such as chemical cleaning applied in conjunction with steam or high pressure water rinse; and sandblasting, which abrades the surface to expose a virgin surface.

Historic Renovation

Preservation or recreation of original materials and designs.

Wall Types

Parapet Wall

The part of any wall extending above the roof line.

Barrier Wall

A wall of solid masonry and mortar, usually 8-12 inches thick.

Cavity Wall

A wall built with an insulating vertical air space.

Curtain Wall

A non load-bearing skin that encloses a building's structural framework.

Masonry Facing Materials

Face Brick

Baked clay brick with a smooth or textured and colored decorative hard finish.

Nautral Materials

Primarily blocks or panels, usually of limestone, granite or marble.

Terra Cotta

A clay that is molded, fired and glazed to a colored finish; originally used as a cost-effective facsimile of cut stone architectural detailing.

Precast Concrete or Cast Stone

Portland cement and coarse aggregate cast in architectural shapes to simulate carved or cut natural limestone elements.

Masonry Steel Supporting Members


A steel angle or channel or beam with a welded plate positioned to support the masonry above a wall opening.

Shelf Angle or Relieving Angle

A steel angle secured to a lateral framing member, generally at floor height intervals to support and relieve the cumulative weight of the exterior wythe of masonry.

Weather Protective Bridging Material

Roof Flashing

The transitional material between a roof and a wall.

Wall Flashing

Impervious sheeting installed within a masonry wall to divert moisture out of the wall.

Caulking or Sealants

A variety of chemical-based materials with differing adhesion and elasticity characteristics, applied to seal construction joinery.

Common Defects and Conditions


A fragment of masonry or concrete that delaminates from the masonry unit or concrete surface.

Rust Buildup

The oxidation, stratification and enlargement of embedded structural steel to a volume of up to ten times the original cross section.


A cyclical freezing and thawing of moisture within a wall that causes stress to materials and can lead to their displacement or disintegration.


Salts drawn from masonry that form a deposit on exterior walls.